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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549 
 _________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
 _________________________________________________________
(Mark One)
x
Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
or
o
Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from to                                  to                                 
Commission file number 001-34626 
   _________________________________________________________
PIEDMONT OFFICE REALTY TRUST, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 __________________________________________________________
Maryland
58-2328421
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
 
 
5565 Glenridge Connector Ste. 450, Atlanta, Georgia
30342
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
(770) 418-8800
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
    _________________________________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12 (b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Name of exchange on which registered
COMMON STOCK
NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12 (g) of the Act:
None
(Title of Class)
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes  o    No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Large accelerated filer  x     Accelerated filer  o      Non-accelerated filer  o     Smaller reporting company   o Emerging growth company o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  o    No  x
As of June 29, 2018, the aggregate market value of the common stock of Piedmont Office Realty Trust, Inc., held by non-affiliates was $2,531,552,680 based on the closing price as reported on the New York Stock Exchange. As of February 19, 2019, 125,595,994 shares of common stock were outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference:
Registrant incorporates by reference portions of the Piedmont Office Realty Trust, Inc. Definitive Proxy Statement for the 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (Items 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 of Part III) to be filed no later than April 30, 2019.
 


Table of Contents
Index to Financial Statements


 
 
FORM 10-K
 
 
 
 
PIEDMONT OFFICE REALTY TRUST, INC.
 
 
 
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART I.
 
 
 
Page No.
 
Item 1.
 
 
Item 1A.
 
 
Item 1B.
 
 
Item 2.
 
 
Item 3.
 
 
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART II.
 
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
 
 
Item 6.
 
 
Item 7.
 
 
Item 7A.
 
 
Item 8.
 
 
Item 9.
 
 
Item 9A.
 
 
Item 9B.
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART III.
 
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
 
 
Item 11.
 
 
Item 12.
 
 
Item 13.
 
 
Item 14.
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART IV.
 
 
 
 
 
Item 15.
 
 
 
 



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Index to Financial Statements

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Certain statements contained in this Form 10-K may constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. In addition, Piedmont Office Realty Trust, Inc. ("Piedmont," "we," "our," or "us"), or its executive officers on Piedmont’s behalf, may from time to time make forward-looking statements in reports and other documents Piedmont files with the Securities and Exchange Commission or in connection with other written or oral statements made to the press, potential investors, or others. Statements regarding future events and developments and Piedmont’s future performance, as well as management’s expectations, beliefs, plans, estimates, or projections relating to the future, are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include statements preceded by, followed by, or that include the words “may,” “will,” “expect,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “believe,” “continue,” or other similar words. Examples of such statements in this report include descriptions of our real estate, financings, and operating objectives; discussions regarding future dividends and share repurchases; and discussions regarding the potential impact of economic conditions on our real estate and lease portfolio.

These statements are based on beliefs and assumptions of Piedmont’s management, which in turn are based on information available at the time the statements are made. Important assumptions relating to the forward-looking statements include, among others, assumptions regarding the demand for office space in the markets in which Piedmont operates, competitive conditions, and general economic conditions. These assumptions could prove inaccurate. The forward-looking statements also involve risks and uncertainties, which could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statement. Many of these factors are beyond Piedmont’s ability to control or predict. Such factors include, but are not limited to, the following:

Economic, regulatory, socio-economic changes, and/or technology changes (including accounting standards) that impact the real estate market generally, or that could affect patterns of use of commercial office space;
The impact of competition on our efforts to renew existing leases or re-let space on terms similar to existing leases;
Changes in the economies and other conditions affecting the office sector in general and specifically the eight markets in which we primarily operate where we have high concentrations of our Annualized Lease Revenue (see definition in Item 1. Business of this Annual Report on Form 10-K);
Lease terminations, lease defaults, or changes in the financial condition of our tenants, particularly by one of our large lead tenants;
Adverse market and economic conditions, including any resulting impairment charges on both our long-lived assets or goodwill resulting therefrom;
The success of our real estate strategies and investment objectives, including our ability to identify and consummate suitable acquisitions and divestitures;
The illiquidity of real estate investments, including regulatory restrictions to which REITs are subject and the resulting impediment on our ability to quickly respond to adverse changes in the performance of our properties;
The risks and uncertainties associated with our acquisition and disposition of properties, many of which risks and uncertainties may not be known at the time of acquisition or disposition;
Development and construction delays and resultant increased costs and risks;
Our real estate development strategies may not be successful;
Future acts of terrorism in any of the major metropolitan areas in which we own properties, or future cybersecurity attacks against us or any of our tenants;
Costs of complying with governmental laws and regulations;
Additional risks and costs associated with directly managing properties occupied by government tenants, including an increased risk of default by government tenants during periods in which state or federal governments are shut down or on furlough;
Significant price and volume fluctuations in the public markets, including on the exchange which we listed our common stock;
Changes in the method pursuant to which the LIBOR rates are determined and the potential phasing out of LIBOR after 2021:
The effect of future offerings of debt or equity securities or changes in market interest rates on the value of our common stock;
Uncertainties associated with environmental and other regulatory matters;
Potential changes in political environment and reduction in federal and/or state funding of our governmental tenants;
Changes in the financial condition of our tenants directly or indirectly resulting from geopolitical developments that could negatively affect international trade, including the United Kingdom's referendum to withdraw from the European Union, the termination or threatened termination of existing international trade agreements, or the implementation of tariffs or retaliatory tariffs on imported or exported goods;
The effect of any litigation to which we are, or may become, subject;

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Index to Financial Statements

Changes in tax laws impacting real estate investment trusts ("REITs") and real estate in general, as well as our ability to continue to qualify as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (the “Code”) or otherwise adversely affect our stockholders;
The future effectiveness of our internal controls and procedures; and
Other factors, including the risk factors discussed under Item 1A. of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Management believes these forward-looking statements are reasonable; however, undue reliance should not be placed on any forward-looking statements, which are based on current expectations. Further, forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and management undertakes no obligation to update publicly any of them in light of new information or future events.

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Index to Financial Statements

PART I

ITEM 1.    BUSINESS

General

Piedmont Office Realty Trust, Inc. (“Piedmont," "we," "our," or "us") (NYSE: PDM) is a Maryland corporation that operates in a manner so as to qualify as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) for federal income tax purposes and engages in the acquisition, development, management, and ownership of commercial real estate properties located primarily in the Eastern-half of the United States, including properties that are under construction, are newly constructed, or have operating histories. Piedmont was incorporated in 1997 and commenced operations in 1998. Piedmont conducts business primarily through Piedmont Operating Partnership, L.P. (“Piedmont OP”), a Delaware limited partnership, as well as performing the management of our buildings through two wholly-owned subsidiaries, Piedmont Government Services, LLC and Piedmont Office Management, LLC. Piedmont owns 99.9% of, and is the sole general partner of, Piedmont OP and as such, possesses full legal control and authority over the operations of Piedmont OP. The remaining 0.1% ownership interest of Piedmont OP is held indirectly by Piedmont through our wholly-owned subsidiary, Piedmont Office Holdings, Inc. ("POH"), the sole limited partner of Piedmont OP. Piedmont OP owns properties directly, through wholly-owned subsidiaries, and through various joint ventures which we control. References to Piedmont herein shall include Piedmont and all of its subsidiaries, including Piedmont OP and its subsidiaries and joint ventures.

Operating Objectives and Strategy

As of December 31, 2018, we owned and operated 54 in-service office properties comprised of approximately 16.2 million square feet of primarily Class A office space which was 93.3% leased. Collectively, 92% of our Annualized Lease Revenue (see definition below) is generated from select sub-markets located within eight major office markets located in the Eastern-half of the United States: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Minneapolis, New York, Orlando, and Washington, D.C. As we typically lease to larger, credit-worthy corporate tenants, our average lease size is approximately 19,000 square feet with an average lease term remaining of approximately seven years. Our diversified tenant base is primarily comprised of investment grade or nationally recognized corporations or governmental agencies, with the majority of our Annualized Lease Revenue derived from such tenants. No tenant accounts for more than 5.1% of our Annualized Lease Revenue.
Headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, with regional and/or local management offices in each of our eight major markets, Piedmont values operational excellence and is a leading participant among REITs based on the number of buildings owned and managed with Building Owners and Managers Association ("BOMA") 360 designations. BOMA 360 is a program that evaluates six major areas of building operations and management and benchmarks a building's performance against industry standards. The achievement of such a designation recognizes excellence in building operations and management. We also have focused on environmental sustainability initiatives at our properties, and approximately 80% of our office portfolio (based on square footage) has achieved and maintains "Energy Star" efficiency (a designation for the top 25% of commercial buildings in energy consumption efficiency). In addition to operational excellence, we focus on fostering long-term relationships with our high-credit quality, diverse tenant base as evidenced by our approximately 69% tenant retention rate over the past ten years.
Our primary objectives are to maximize the risk-adjusted return to our stockholders by increasing cash flow from operations, by achieving sustainable growth in Funds From Operations, and by growing net asset value by realizing long-term capital appreciation. We manage risk by owning almost exclusively Class A, geographically diverse office properties which are among the most desirable in their respective office sub-markets. In addition to the creditworthiness of our tenants, we strive to ensure our tenants represent a broad spectrum of industry types with lease expirations that are laddered over many years. Operationally, we maintain a low leverage structure, utilizing primarily unsecured financing facilities with laddered maturities. We utilize a national buying platform of property management support services to ensure optimal pricing for landlord and tenant services, as well as to implement best practices and achieve sustainability standards. The strategies we intend to execute to achieve these objectives include:

Capitalizing on Acquisition/Investment Opportunities

Our overall acquisition/investment strategy focuses on properties within eight major office markets located primarily in the Eastern-half of the United States that were identified based on their positive economic and demographic growth trends so as to position our investments for long-term appreciation. In addition, we concentrate our portfolio in select sub-markets where efficiencies can be gained and our market expertize can be maximized. We believe these sub-markets are generally characterized by their strong amenity base, desired location for large corporate users, above-average job and rental rate growth, proximity to robust housing options, market-leading transportation infrastructure, and limited competitive REIT ownership. Both our acquisition and development activities are targeted towards attractively priced, high quality, Class A office properties that complement our existing portfolio.


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Index to Financial Statements

Proactive Asset Management, Leasing Capabilities and Property Management

Our proactive approach to asset and property management encompasses a number of operating initiatives designed to maximize occupancy and rental rates, including the following: devoting significant resources to building and cultivating our relationships with commercial real estate executives; maintaining local management offices in markets in which we have a significant presence; demonstrating our commitment to our tenants by maintaining the high quality of our properties; and driving a significant volume of leasing transactions in a manner that provides optimal returns by using creative approaches, including early extensions, lease wrap-arounds and restructurings. We manage portfolio risk by structuring lease expirations to avoid, among other things, having multiple leases expire in the same market in a relatively short period of time; applying our leasing and operational expertise in meeting the specialized requirements of federal, state and local government agencies to attract and retain these types of tenants; evaluating potential tenants based on third party and internal assessments of creditworthiness; and using our purchasing power and market knowledge to reduce our operating costs and those of our tenants.

Recycling Capital Efficiently

We use our proven, disciplined capital recycling capabilities to maximize total return to our stockholders by selectively disposing of non-core assets and assets in which we believe full valuations have been achieved, and redeploying the proceeds of those dispositions into new investment opportunities with higher overall return prospects.

Financing Strategy

We employ a conservative leverage strategy by typically maintaining a debt-to-gross assets ratio of between 30% - 40%. To effectively manage our long-term leverage strategy, we continue to analyze various sources of debt capital to prudently ladder debt maturities and to determine which sources will be the most beneficial to our investment strategy at any particular point in time.

Use of Joint Ventures to Improve Returns and Mitigate Risk

We may selectively enter into strategic joint ventures with third parties to acquire, develop, improve or dispose of properties, thereby potentially reducing the amount of capital required by us to make investments, diversifying our sources of capital, enabling us to creatively acquire and control targeted properties, and allowing us to reduce our investment concentration in certain properties and/or markets without disrupting our operating performance or local operating capabilities.

Redevelopment and Repositioning of Properties

As circumstances warrant, we may redevelop or reposition properties within our portfolio, including the creation of additional amenities for our tenants to increase both occupancy and rental rates and thereby improve returns on our invested capital.

Information Regarding Disclosures Presented

Annualized Lease Revenue ("ALR"), a non-GAAP measure, is calculated by multiplying (i) rental payments (defined as base rent plus operating expense reimbursements, if payable by the tenant on a monthly basis under the terms of a lease that has been executed, but excluding (a) rental abatements and (b) rental payments related to executed but not commenced leases for space that was covered by an existing lease), by (ii) 12. In instances in which contractual rents or operating expense reimbursements are collected on an annual, semi-annual, or quarterly basis, such amounts are multiplied by a factor of 1, 2, or 4, respectively, to calculate the annualized figure. For leases that have been executed but not commenced relating to un-leased space, ALR is calculated by multiplying (i) the monthly base rental payment (excluding abatements) plus any operating expense reimbursements for the initial month of the lease term, by (ii) 12. Unless stated otherwise, this measure excludes revenues associated with development/re-development properties, if any.

Employees

As of December 31, 2018, we had 134 employees, with 49 of our employees working in our corporate office located in Atlanta, Georgia. Our remaining employees work in regional and/or local management offices located in our eight major markets. These employees are involved in acquiring, developing, leasing, and managing our portfolio of properties. We outsource various functions where cost efficiencies can be achieved, such as certain areas of information technology, construction, building engineering, and leasing.


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Index to Financial Statements

Competition

We compete for tenants for our high-quality assets in major U.S. markets by fostering strong tenant relationships and by providing quality customer service including; leasing, asset management, property management, and construction management services. As the competition for high-credit-quality tenants is intense, we may be required to provide rent abatements, incur charges for tenant improvements and other concessions, or we may not be able to lease vacant space timely, all of which may impact our results of operations. We also compete with other buyers who are interested in properties we elect to acquire, which may affect the amount that we are required to pay for such properties or may ultimately result in our decision not to acquire such properties. Further, we compete with sellers of similar properties when we sell properties, which may determine the amount of proceeds we receive from the disposal, or which may result in our inability to dispose of such properties due to the lack of an acceptable return.

Financial Information About Industry Segments

Our current business primarily consists of owning, managing, operating, leasing, acquiring, developing, investing in, and disposing of office real estate assets. We internally evaluate all of our real estate assets as one operating segment, and, accordingly, we do not report segment information.

Concentration of Credit Risk

We are dependent upon the ability of our current tenants to pay their contractual rent amounts as the rents become due. The inability of a tenant to pay future rental amounts would have a negative impact on our results of operations. As of December 31, 2018, no individual tenant represented more than 5.1% of our ALR.

Other Matters

We have contracts with various governmental agencies, exclusively in the form of operating leases in buildings we own. See Item 1A. Risk Factors for further discussion of the risks associated with these contracts.

Additionally, as the owner of real estate assets, we are subject to environmental risks. See Item 1A. Risk Factors for further discussion of the risks associated with environmental concerns.

Website Address

Access to copies of each of our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements, and other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"), including any amendments to such filings, may be obtained free of charge from the following website, http://www.piedmontreit.com, or directly from the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. These filings are available promptly after we file them with, or furnish them to, the SEC.
 
ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS

Risks Related to Our Business and Operations

Economic, regulatory, socio-economic and/or technology changes that impact the real estate market generally, or that could affect patterns of use of commercial office space, may cause our operating results to suffer and decrease the value of our real estate properties.

The investment returns available from equity investments in real estate depend on the amount of income earned and capital appreciation generated by the properties, as well as the expenses incurred in connection with the properties. If our properties do not generate income sufficient to meet operating expenses, including debt service and capital expenditures, then our ability to make distributions to our stockholders could be adversely affected. In addition, there are significant expenditures associated with an investment in real estate (such as mortgage payments, real estate taxes, and maintenance costs) that generally do not decline when circumstances reduce the income from the property. The following factors, among others, may adversely affect the operating performance and long- or short-term value of our properties:

changes in the national, regional, and local economic climate, particularly in markets in which we have a concentration of properties;
local office market conditions such as employment rates and changes in the supply of, or demand for, space in properties similar to those that we own within a particular area;
changes in the patterns of office or parking garage use due to technological advances which may make telecommuting more prevalent or reduce the demand for office workers or parking spaces generally;
increased demand for "co-working" or sharing of office space with other companies;

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increased supply of office space due to the conversion of other asset classes such as shopping malls and other retail establishments to office space;
the attractiveness of our properties to potential tenants;
changes in interest rates and availability of permanent mortgage funds that may render the sale of a property difficult or unattractive or otherwise reduce returns to stockholders;
the financial stability of our tenants, including bankruptcies, financial difficulties, or lease defaults by our tenants;
changes in operating costs and expenses, including costs for maintenance, insurance, and real estate taxes, and our ability to control rents in light of such changes;
the need to periodically fund the costs to repair, renovate, and re-let space;
earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes and other natural disasters, civil unrest, terrorist acts or acts of war, which may result in uninsured or under insured losses;
changes in, or increased costs of compliance with, governmental regulations, including those governing usage, zoning, the environment, and taxes; and
significant changes in accounting standards and tax laws.

In addition, periods of economic slowdown or recession, rising interest rates, or declining demand for real estate could result in a general decrease in rents or an increased occurrence of defaults under existing leases, which would adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Any of the above factors may prevent us from generating sufficient cash flow or maintaining the value of our real estate properties.

We face considerable competition in the leasing market and may be unable to renew existing leases or re-let space on terms similar to the existing leases, or we may expend significant capital in our efforts to re-let space.

Every year, we compete with a number of other developers, owners, and operators of office and office-oriented, mixed-use properties to renew leases with our existing tenants and to attract new tenants. The competition for credit worthy tenants is intense, and we may have difficulty competing, especially with competitors who have purchased properties at discounted prices allowing them to offer space at reduced rental rates, or those that have the ability to offer superior amenities. To the extent that we are able to renew leases that are scheduled to expire in the short-term or re-let such space to new tenants, this intense competition may require us to utilize rent concessions and tenant improvements to a greater extent than we have historically.

If our competitors offer office accommodations at rental rates below current market rates or below the rental rates we currently charge our tenants, we may lose potential tenants, and we may be pressured to reduce our rental rates below those we currently charge in order to retain tenants upon expiration of their existing leases. Even if our tenants renew their leases or we are able to re-let the space to new tenants, the terms and other costs of renewal or re-letting, including the cost of required renovations or additional amenities, increased tenant improvement allowances, leasing commissions, declining rental rates, and other potential concessions, may be less favorable than the terms of our current leases and could require significant capital expenditures. If we are unable to renew leases or re-let space in a reasonable time, or if rental rates decline or tenant improvement, leasing commissions, or other costs increase, our financial condition, cash flows, cash available for distribution, value of our common stock, and ability to satisfy our debt service obligations could be adversely affected.

Our rental revenues will be significantly influenced by the conditions of the office market in general and of the specific markets in which we operate.

Because our portfolio consists exclusively of office properties, we are subject to risks inherent in investments in a single property type. This concentration exposes us to the risk of economic downturns in the office sector to a greater extent than if our portfolio also included other sectors of the real estate industry. Further, our portfolio of properties is primarily located in eight major metropolitan areas: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Minneapolis, New York, Orlando, and Washington, D.C. Collectively, these eight metropolitan areas account for 92% of our ALR from our portfolio of properties as of December 31, 2018. As a result, we are particularly susceptible to adverse market conditions in these particular cities, including any reduction in demand for office properties, industry slowdowns, governmental cut backs, relocation of businesses and changing demographics. Adverse economic or real estate developments in these markets, or in any of the other markets in which we operate, or any decrease in demand for office space resulting from the local or national government and business climates, could adversely affect our rental revenues and operating results.

We depend on tenants for our revenue, and accordingly, lease terminations and/or tenant defaults, particularly by one of our significant lead tenants, could adversely affect the income produced by our properties.

The success of our investments materially depends on the financial stability of our tenants, any of whom may experience a change in their business at any time. Many of our tenants may be adversely impacted by the specific consequences of, and the general market uncertainty associated with, geopolitical developments that could negatively affect international trade, including the United

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Kingdom’s referendum to withdraw from the European Union or by the recent rejection by the United Kingdom’s House of Commons of the negotiated agreement that was to govern the United Kingdom’s withdrawal, the termination or threatened termination of existing international trade agreements, or the implementation of tariffs or retaliatory tariffs on imported or exported goods. If any of our tenants experience or anticipate an adverse change in their respective businesses for any reason, they may delay lease commencements, decline to extend or renew their leases upon expiration, fail to make rental payments when due, or declare bankruptcy. Any of these actions could result in the termination of the tenants’ leases, or expiration of existing leases without renewal, and the loss of rental income attributable to the terminated or expired leases. In the event of a tenant default or bankruptcy, we may experience delays in enforcing our rights as a landlord and may incur substantial costs in protecting our investment and re-letting our property. If significant leases are terminated or defaulted upon, we may be unable to lease the property for the rent previously received or to sell the property without incurring a loss. In addition, significant expenditures related to mortgage payments, real estate taxes, insurance, and maintenance costs are generally fixed or may not decrease immediately when revenues at the related property decrease.

The occurrence of any of the situations described above, particularly if it involves one of our significant lead tenants, could seriously harm our operating performance. As of December 31, 2018, our largest lead tenants, based on ALR, were: the State of New York (5.1% of ALR), US Bancorp (4.7% of ALR), Independence Blue Cross (3.7% of ALR), GE (3.4% of ALR), and U.S. Government (2.3% of ALR). The revenues generated by the properties that any of our lead tenants occupy are substantially dependent upon the financial condition of these tenants and, accordingly, any event of bankruptcy, insolvency, or a general downturn in the business of any of these tenants may result in the failure or delay of such tenant’s rental payments, which may have a substantial adverse effect on our operating performance.

Some of our leases provide tenants with the right to terminate their leases early.

Certain of our leases permit our tenants to terminate their leases of all or a portion of the leased premises prior to their stated lease expiration dates under certain circumstances, such as providing notice by a certain date and, in many cases, paying a termination fee. In certain cases, such early terminations can be effectuated by our tenants with little or no termination fee being paid to us. To the extent that our tenants exercise early termination rights, our cash flow and earnings will be adversely affected, and we can provide no assurances that we will be able to generate an equivalent amount of net rental income by leasing the vacated space to new third party tenants.

We may face additional risks and costs associated with directly managing properties occupied by government tenants.

We currently own six properties in which some of the tenants in each property are federal government agencies. Lease agreements with these federal government agencies contain certain provisions required by federal law, which require, among other things, that the contractor (which is the lessor or the owner of the property) agree to comply with certain rules and regulations, including but not limited to, rules and regulations related to anti-kickback procedures, examination of records, audits and records, equal opportunity provisions, prohibitions against segregated facilities, certain executive orders, subcontractor costs or pricing data, and certain provisions intending to assist small businesses. Through one of our wholly-owned subsidiaries, we directly manage properties with federal government agency tenants and, therefore, we are subject to additional risks associated with compliance with all such federal rules and regulations. In addition, we face additional risks and costs associated with directly managing properties occupied by government tenants, including an increased risk of default by such tenants during periods in which state or federal governments are shut down or on furlough. There are certain additional requirements relating to the potential application of the Employment Standards Administration’s Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs and the related requirement to prepare written affirmative action plans applicable to government contractors and subcontractors. Some of the factors used to determine whether such requirements apply to a company that is affiliated with the actual government contractor (the legal entity that is the lessor under a lease with a federal government agency) include whether such company and the government contractor are under common ownership, have common management, and are under common control. One of our wholly-owned subsidiaries is considered a government contractor, increasing the risk that requirements of these equal opportunity provisions, including the requirement to prepare affirmative action plans, may be determined to be applicable to the entire operations of our company.

Adverse market and economic conditions may negatively affect us and could cause us to recognize impairment charges on tangible real estate and related lease intangible assets or otherwise impact our performance.

We continually monitor events and changes in circumstances that could indicate that the carrying value of the real estate and related lease intangible assets in which we have an ownership interest, either directly or through investments in joint ventures, may not be recoverable. When indicators of potential impairment are present which indicate that the carrying value of real estate and related lease intangible assets may not be recoverable, we assess the recoverability of these assets by determining whether the carrying value will be recovered through the undiscounted future operating cash flows expected from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition. In the event that such expected undiscounted future cash flows do not exceed the carrying value, we adjust the real estate and related lease intangible assets to their estimated fair value and recognize an impairment loss.

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Projections of expected future cash flows require management to make assumptions to estimate future market rental income amounts subsequent to the expiration of current lease agreements, property operating expenses, the number of months it takes to re-lease the property, and the number of years the property is held for investment, among other factors. The subjectivity of assumptions used in the future cash flow analysis, including discount rates, could result in an incorrect assessment of the property’s estimated fair value and, therefore, could result in the misstatement of the carrying value of our real estate and related lease intangible assets and our net income. In addition, adverse economic conditions could also cause us to recognize additional asset impairment charges in the future, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Adverse market and economic conditions could cause us to recognize impairment charges on our goodwill, or otherwise impact our performance.

We review the value of our goodwill on an annual basis and when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of goodwill may exceed the estimated fair value of such assets. Such interim events could be adverse changes in legal matters or in the business climate, adverse action or assessment by a regulator, the loss of key personnel, or persistent declines in our stock price below our carrying value. Volatility in the overall market could cause the price of our common stock to fluctuate and cause the carrying value of our company to exceed the estimated fair value. If that occurs, our goodwill potentially could be impaired. Impairment charges recognized in order to reduce our goodwill could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Our earnings growth will partially depend upon future acquisitions of properties, and we may not be successful in identifying and consummating suitable acquisitions that meet our investment criteria.

Our business strategy involves the acquisition of primarily high-quality office properties in selected markets. These activities require us to identify suitable acquisition candidates or investment opportunities that meet our criteria and are compatible with our growth strategy. We may not be successful in identifying suitable properties or other assets that meet our acquisition criteria or in consummating acquisitions on satisfactory terms, if at all. Failure to identify or consummate acquisitions could slow our growth. Likewise, we may incur costs pursuing acquisitions that we are ultimately unsuccessful in completing.

Further, we face significant competition for attractive investment opportunities from a large number of other real estate investors, including investors with significant capital resources such as domestic and foreign corporations and financial institutions, publicly traded and privately held REITs, private institutional investment funds, investment banking firms, life insurance companies and pension funds. As a result of competition, we may be unable to acquire additional properties as we desire, the purchase price may be significantly elevated, or we may have to accept lease-up risk for a property with lower occupancy, any of which could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and the ability to pay dividends on, and the market price of, our common stock.

The illiquidity of real estate investments could significantly impede our ability to respond to adverse changes in the performance of our properties.

Because real estate investments are relatively illiquid and large-scale office properties such as many of those in our portfolio are particularly illiquid, our ability to sell promptly one or more properties in our portfolio in response to changing economic, financial, and investment conditions is limited. The real estate market is affected by many forces, such as general economic conditions, availability of financing, interest rates, and other factors, including supply and demand, that are beyond our control. We cannot predict whether we will be able to sell any property for the price or on the terms set by us or whether any price or other terms offered by a prospective purchaser would be acceptable to us. We also cannot predict the length of time needed to find a willing purchaser and to close the sale of a property. We may be required to expend funds to correct defects or to make improvements before a property can be sold. We cannot provide any assurances that we will have funds available to correct such defects or to make such improvements. Our inability to dispose of assets at opportune times or on favorable terms could adversely affect our cash flows and results of operations, thereby limiting our ability to make distributions to stockholders.

Future acquisitions of properties may not yield anticipated returns, may result in disruptions to our business, and may strain management resources.

We intend to continue acquiring high-quality office properties, subject to the availability of attractive properties, to our ability to arrange financing, and to consummate acquisitions on satisfactory terms. In deciding whether to acquire a particular property, we make certain assumptions regarding the expected future performance of that property. However, newly acquired properties may fail to perform as expected. Costs necessary to bring acquired properties up to standards established for their intended market position may exceed our expectations, which may result in the properties’ failure to achieve projected returns.

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In particular, to the extent that we engage in acquisition activities, they will pose the following risks for our ongoing operations:

we may acquire properties or other real estate-related investments that are not initially accretive to our results upon acquisition or accept lower cash flows in anticipation of longer term appreciation, and we may not successfully manage and lease those properties to meet our expectations;
we may not achieve expected cost savings and operating efficiencies;
we may be unable to quickly and efficiently integrate new acquisitions, particularly acquisitions of portfolios of properties, into our existing operations;
management attention may be diverted to the integration of acquired properties, which in some cases may turn out to be less compatible with our operating strategy than originally anticipated;
we may not be able to support the acquired property through one of our existing property management offices and may not successfully open new satellite offices to serve additional markets;
the acquired properties may not perform as well as we anticipate due to various factors, including changes in macro-economic conditions and the demand for office space; and
we may acquire properties without any recourse, or with only limited recourse, for liabilities, whether known or unknown, such as clean-up of environmental contamination, unknown/undisclosed latent structural issues or maintenance problems, claims by tenants, vendors or other persons against the former owners of the properties, and claims for indemnification by general partners, directors, officers, and others indemnified by the former owners of the properties.

Acquired properties may be located in new markets, where we may face risks associated with investing in an unfamiliar market.

We may acquire properties located in markets in which we do not have an established presence. We may face risks associated with a lack of market knowledge or understanding of the local economy, forging new business relationships in the area and unfamiliarity with local government and permitting procedures. As a result, the operating performance of properties acquired in new markets may be less than we anticipate, and we may have difficulty integrating such properties into our existing portfolio. In addition, the time and resources that may be required to obtain market knowledge and/or integrate such properties into our existing portfolio could divert our management’s attention from our existing business or other attractive opportunities.

We may seek to dispose of properties that no longer meet our strategic plans.

We may seek to dispose of properties that no longer meet our strategic plans with the intent to use the proceeds generated from such potential disposition to acquire additional properties better aligned with our investment criteria and growth strategy or to fund other operational needs. We may not be able to dispose of these properties for the proceeds we expect, or at all, and we may incur costs and divert management attention from our ongoing operations as part of efforts to dispose of these properties, regardless whether such efforts are ultimately successful. In addition, if we are able to dispose of those properties, we may not be able to re-deploy the proceeds in a timely or more efficient manner, if at all. As such, we may not be able to adequately time any decrease in revenues from the sale of properties with a corresponding increase in revenues associated with the acquisition of new properties. The failure to dispose of properties, or to timely and more efficiently apply the proceeds from any disposition of properties to attractive acquisition opportunities, could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

We may invest in mezzanine debt, which is subject to increased risk of loss relative to senior mortgage loans.

We may invest in mezzanine debt. These investments, which are subordinate to the mortgage loans secured by the real property underlying the loan, are generally secured by pledges of the equity interests of the entities owning the underlying real estate. As a result, these investments involve greater risk of loss than investments in senior mortgage loans that are secured by real property since they are subordinate to the mortgage loan secured by the building and may be subordinate to the interests of other mezzanine lenders. Therefore, if the property owner defaults on its debt service obligations payable to us or on debt senior to us, or declares bankruptcy, such mezzanine loans will be satisfied only after the senior debt and the other senior mezzanine loans are paid in full, resulting in the possibility that we may be unable to recover some or all of our investment. In addition, the value of the assets securing or supporting our mezzanine debt investments could deteriorate over time due to factors beyond our control, including acts or omissions by owners, changes in business, economic or market conditions, or foreclosure, any of which could result in the recognition of impairment losses. There may also be significant delays and costs associated with the process of foreclosing on the collateral securing or supporting such investments.


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Our operating results may suffer because of potential development and construction delays and resultant increased costs and risks.

From time to time, we engage in various development and re-development projects where we may be subject to uncertainties associated with re-zoning, environmental concerns of governmental entities and/or community groups, and our builders’ ability to build in conformity with plans, specifications, budgeted costs and timetables. A builder’s performance may also be affected or delayed by conditions beyond the builder’s control. Delays in completing construction could also give tenants the right to terminate preconstruction leases. We may incur additional risks when we make periodic progress payments or other advances to builders before they complete construction. Further, we may incur unanticipated additional costs related to disputes with existing tenants during redevelopment projects. These and other factors can result in increased costs of a project or loss of our investment. In addition, we will be subject to normal lease-up risks relating to newly constructed projects. Projects with long lead times may increase leasing risk due to changes in market conditions.

Our real estate development strategies may not be successful.

From time to time, we engage in various development and redevelopment activities to the extent attractive projects become available. When we engage in development activities, we are subject to risks associated with those activities that could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and ability to pay distributions on, and the market price of, our common stock, including, but not limited to:

development projects in which we have invested may be abandoned and the related investment will be impaired;
we may not be able to obtain, or may experience delays in obtaining, all necessary zoning, land-use, building, occupancy and other governmental permits and authorizations;
we may not be able to obtain land on which to develop;
we may not be able to obtain financing for development projects, or obtain financing on favorable terms;
construction costs of a project may exceed the original estimates or construction may not be concluded on schedule, making the project less profitable than originally estimated or not profitable at all (including the possibility of errors or omissions in the project's design, contract default, contractor or subcontractor default, performance bond surety default, the effects of local weather conditions, the possibility of local or national strikes and the possibility of shortages in materials, building supplies or energy and fuel for equipment);
tenants which pre-lease space or contract with us for a build-to-suit project may default prior to occupying the project;
upon completion of construction, we may not be able to obtain, or obtain on advantageous terms, permanent financing for activities that we financed through construction loans; and
we may not achieve sufficient occupancy levels and/or obtain sufficient rents to ensure the profitability of a completed project.

Moreover, substantial renovation and development activities, regardless of their ultimate success, typically require a significant amount of management’s time and attention, diverting their attention from our other operations.

Future terrorist attacks in the major metropolitan areas in which we own properties could significantly impact the demand for, and value of, our properties.

Our portfolio of properties is primarily located in eight major metropolitan areas: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Minneapolis, New York, Orlando, and Washington, D.C., any of which could be, and some of which have been, the target of terrorist attacks. Future terrorist attacks and other acts of terrorism or war would severely impact the demand for, and value of, our properties. Terrorist attacks in and around any of the major metropolitan areas in which we own properties also could directly impact the value of our properties through damage, destruction, loss, or increased security costs, and could thereafter materially impact the availability or cost of insurance to protect against such acts. A decrease in demand could make it difficult to renew or re-lease our properties at lease rates equal to or above historical rates. To the extent that any future terrorist attacks otherwise disrupt our tenants’ businesses, it may impair our tenants’ ability to make timely payments under their existing leases with us, which would harm our operating results.

We face risks related to the occurrence of cyber incidents, or a deficiency in our cyber-security, which could negatively impact our business by causing a disruption to our operations, a compromise or corruption of our confidential information, and/or damage to our business relationships, all of which could negatively impact our financial results.

A cyber incident is considered to be any adverse event that threatens the confidentiality, integrity, functionality, or availability of our information resources and systems. More specifically, a cyber incident is an intentional attack or an unintentional event that can include gaining unauthorized access to systems to disrupt building or corporate operations, corrupt data, or steal confidential information. While we have not experienced any material cyber incidents in the past, the risk of a security breach or disruption,

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particularly through cyber attacks or cyber intrusion, including by computer hackers, foreign governments and cyber terrorists, has generally increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. As our reliance on technology has increased, so have the risks posed to our systems, both internal and those we have outsourced. Risks that could directly result from the occurrence of a cyber incident include physical harm to occupants of our buildings, physical damage to our buildings, actual cash loss, operational interruption, damage to our relationship with our tenants, potential errors from misstated financial reports, violations of loan covenants, missed reporting deadlines, and private data exposure, among others. Any or all of the preceding risks could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Insider or employee cyber and security threats are increasingly a concern for all companies, including ours. In addition, social engineering and phishing are a particular concern for companies with employees. We are continuously working to install new, and to upgrade our existing, network, building operating, and information technology systems and to provide employee awareness training around phishing, malware and other cyber risks to ensure that we are protected, to the greatest extent possible, against cyber risks and security breaches. However, such upgrades, new technology and training may not be sufficient to protect us from all risks.

We are continuously developing and enhancing our controls, processes, and practices designed to protect our systems, computers, software, data, and networks from attack, damage, or unauthorized access. This continued development and enhancement will require us to expend additional resources, including to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities that may be detected. Although we make efforts to maintain the security and integrity of these types of information technology networks, building systems, and related systems, and we have implemented various measures to manage the risk of a security breach or disruption, there can be no assurance that our security efforts and measures will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging. Even the most well protected information, networks, systems and facilities remain potentially vulnerable because the techniques used in such attempted security breaches evolve and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, and in some cases are designed to not be detected and, in fact, may not be detected. Accordingly, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate security barriers or other preventative measures, and thus it is impossible for us to entirely mitigate this risk.

Further, one or more of our tenants could experience a cyber incident which could impact their operations and ability to perform under the terms of their lease with us. We are not aware of any of our tenants experiencing a cyber incident, and if any such cyber incident has occurred among our tenants, it has not given rise to a default under such tenant’s lease with us.

Uninsured losses or losses in excess of our insurance coverage could adversely affect our financial condition and our cash flow, and there can be no assurance as to future costs and the scope of coverage that may be available under insurance policies.

We carry comprehensive general liability, fire, rental loss, environmental, cyber-security, and umbrella liability coverage on all of our properties and earthquake, wind, and flood coverage on properties in areas where such coverage is warranted. We believe the policy specifications and insured limits of these policies are adequate and appropriate given the relative risk of loss, the cost of the coverage, and industry practice. However, we may be subject to certain types of losses, those that are generally catastrophic in nature, such as losses due to wars, conventional or cyber terrorism, chemical, biological, nuclear and radiation (“CBNR”) acts of terrorism and, in some cases, earthquakes, hurricanes, and flooding, either because such coverage is not available or is not available at commercially reasonable rates. If we experience a loss that is uninsured or that exceeds policy limits, we could lose a significant portion of the capital we have invested in the damaged property, as well as the anticipated future revenue from the property. Inflation, changes in building codes and ordinances, environmental considerations, and other factors also might make it impractical or undesirable to use insurance proceeds to replace a property after it has been damaged or destroyed. In addition, if the damaged properties are subject to recourse indebtedness, we would continue to be liable for the indebtedness, even if these properties were irreparably damaged. Furthermore, we may not be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage at reasonable costs in the future, as the costs associated with property and casualty renewals may be higher than anticipated.

In addition, insurance risks associated with potential terrorist acts could sharply increase the premiums we pay for coverage against property and casualty claims. Under the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act ("TRIA"), which is effective through 2020, United States insurers cannot exclude conventional (non-CBNR) terrorism losses. These insurers must make terrorism insurance available under their property and casualty insurance policies; however, this legislation does not regulate the pricing of such insurance. In some cases, mortgage lenders may insist that commercial property owners purchase coverage against terrorism as a condition of providing mortgage loans. Such insurance policies may not be available at a reasonable cost, which could inhibit our ability to finance or refinance our properties. In such instances, we may be required to provide other financial support, either through financial assurances or self-insurance, to cover potential losses. We may not have adequate coverage for such losses.


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Should one of our insurance carriers become insolvent, we would be adversely affected.

We carry several different lines of insurance, placed with several large insurance carriers. If any one of these large insurance carriers were to become insolvent, we would be forced to replace the existing insurance coverage with another suitable carrier, and any outstanding claims would be at risk for collection. In such an event, we cannot be certain that we would be able to replace the coverage at similar or otherwise favorable terms. Replacing insurance coverage at unfavorable rates and the potential of uncollectible claims due to carrier insolvency could adversely impact our results of operations and cash flows.

Our joint venture investments could be adversely affected by a lack of sole decision-making authority and our reliance on joint venture partners’ financial condition.

From time to time we enter into strategic joint ventures with institutional investors to acquire, develop, improve, or dispose of properties, thereby reducing the amount of capital required by us to make investments and diversifying our capital sources for growth. Such joint venture investments involve risks not otherwise present in a wholly-owned property, development, or redevelopment project, including but not limited to the following:

in these investments, we may not have exclusive control over the development, financing, leasing, management, and other aspects of the project, which may prevent us from taking actions that are opposed by our joint venture partners;
joint venture agreements often restrict the transfer of a co-venturer’s interest or may otherwise restrict our ability to sell the interest when we desire or on advantageous terms;
we may not be in a position to exercise sole decision-making authority regarding the property or joint venture, which could create the potential risk of creating impasses on decisions, such as acquisitions or sales;
such co-venturer may, at any time, have economic or business interests or goals that are, or that may become, inconsistent with our business interests or goals;
such co-venturer may be in a position to take action contrary to our instructions, requests, policies or objectives, including our current policy with respect to maintaining our qualification as a REIT;
the possibility that our co-venturer in an investment might become bankrupt, which would mean that we and any other remaining co-venturers would generally remain liable for the joint venture’s liabilities;
our relationships with our co-venturers are contractual in nature and may be terminated or dissolved under the terms of the applicable joint venture agreements and, in such event, we may not continue to own or operate the interests or assets underlying such relationship or may need to purchase such interests or assets at a premium to the market price to continue ownership;
disputes between us and our co-venturers may result in litigation or arbitration that would increase our expenses and prevent our officers and directors from focusing their time and efforts on our business and could result in subjecting the properties owned by the applicable joint venture to additional risk; or
we may, in certain circumstances, be liable for the actions of our co-venturers, and the activities of a joint venture could adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT, even though we do not control the joint venture.

Any of the above might subject a property to liabilities in excess of those contemplated and thus reduce the returns to our investors.

Costs of complying with governmental laws and regulations may reduce our net income and the cash available for distributions to our stockholders.

All real property and the operations conducted on real property are subject to federal, state, and local laws and regulations relating to environmental protection and human health and safety. Tenants’ ability to operate and to generate income to pay their lease obligations may be affected by permitting and compliance obligations arising under such laws and regulations. Some of these laws and regulations may impose joint and several liability on tenants, owners, or operators for the costs to investigate or remediate contaminated properties, regardless of fault or whether the acts causing the contamination were legal. In addition, the presence of hazardous substances, or the failure to properly remediate these substances, may hinder our ability to sell, rent, or pledge such property as collateral for future borrowings.

Compliance with new laws or regulations or stricter interpretation of existing laws by agencies or the courts may require us to incur material expenditures or may impose additional liabilities on us, including environmental liabilities. In addition, there are various local, state, and federal fire, health, life-safety, and similar regulations with which we may be required to comply, and which may subject us to liability in the form of fines or damages for noncompliance. Any material expenditures, liabilities, fines, or damages we must pay will reduce our cash flows and ability to make distributions and may reduce the value of our stockholders’ investment.


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As the present or former owner or operator of real property, we could become subject to liability for environmental contamination, regardless of whether we caused such contamination.

Under various federal, state, and local environmental laws, ordinances, and regulations, a current or former owner or operator of real property may be liable for the cost to remove or remediate hazardous or toxic substances, wastes, or petroleum products on, under, from, or in such property. These costs could be substantial and liability under these laws may attach whether or not the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such contamination. As a result our tenants’ operations, the existing condition of land when we buy it, operations in the vicinity of our properties such as the presence of underground storage tanks or activities of unrelated third parties may affect our properties. Even if more than one party may have been responsible for the contamination, each liable party may be held entirely responsible for all of the clean-up costs incurred. In addition, third parties may sue the owner or operator of a property for damages based on personal injury, natural resources, or property damage and/or for other costs, including investigation and clean-up costs, resulting from the environmental contamination. The presence of contamination on one of our properties, or the failure to properly remediate a contaminated property, could give rise to a lien in favor of the government for costs it may incur to address the contamination, or otherwise adversely affect our ability to sell or lease the property or borrow using the property as collateral. In addition, if contamination is discovered on our properties, environmental laws may impose restrictions on the manner in which property may be used or businesses may be operated, and these restrictions may require substantial expenditures or prevent us from entering into leases with prospective tenants.

Some of our properties are adjacent to or near other properties that have contained or currently contain underground storage tanks used to store petroleum products or other hazardous or toxic substances. In addition, certain of our properties are on, adjacent to, or near sites upon which others, including former owners or tenants of our properties, have engaged, or may in the future engage, in activities that have released or may have released petroleum products or other hazardous or toxic substances.

The cost of defending against claims of liability, of remediating any contaminated property, or of paying personal injury claims could reduce the amounts available for distribution to our stockholders.

As the owner of real property, we could become subject to liability for adverse environmental conditions in the buildings on our property.

Some of our properties have building materials that contain asbestos. Environmental laws require that owners or operators of buildings containing asbestos properly manage and maintain the asbestos, adequately inform or train those who may come into contact with asbestos, and undertake special precautions, including removal or other abatement, in the event that asbestos is disturbed during building renovation or demolition. These laws may impose fines and penalties on building owners or operators who fail to comply with these requirements. In addition, environmental laws and the common law may allow third parties to seek recovery from owners or operators for personal injury associated with exposure to asbestos.

The properties also may contain or develop harmful mold or suffer from other air quality issues. Any of these materials or conditions could result in liability for personal injury and costs of remediating adverse conditions, which could have an adverse effect on our cash flows and ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

As the owner of real property, we could become subject to liability for a tenant’s failure to comply with environmental requirements regarding the handling and disposal of regulated substances and wastes or for non-compliance with health and safety requirements, which requirements are subject to change.

Some of our tenants may handle regulated substances and wastes as part of their operations at our properties. Environmental laws regulate the handling, use, and disposal of these materials and subject our tenants, and potentially us, to liability resulting from non-compliance with these requirements. The properties in our portfolio also are subject to various federal, state, and local health and safety requirements, such as state and local fire requirements. If we or our tenants fail to comply with these various requirements, we might incur governmental fines or private damage awards. Moreover, we do not know whether or the extent to which existing requirements or their enforcement will change or whether future requirements will require us to make significant unanticipated expenditures, either of which could materially and adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, cash available for distribution to stockholders, the market price of our common stock, and our ability to satisfy our debt service obligations. If our tenants become subject to liability for noncompliance, it could affect their ability to make rental payments to us.

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We depend on key personnel, each of whom would be difficult to replace.

Our continued success depends to a significant degree upon the continued contributions of certain key personnel, each of whom would be difficult to replace. Our ability to retain our management team, or to attract suitable replacements should any member of the management team leave, is dependent on the competitive nature of the employment market. The loss of services of one or more key members of our management team could adversely affect our results of operations and slow our future growth. While we have planned for the succession of each of the key members of our management team, our succession plans may not effectively prevent any adverse effects from the loss of any member of our management team. We have not obtained and do not expect to obtain “key person” life insurance on any of our key personnel.

We may be subject to litigation, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.

From time to time, we may be subject to legal action arising in the ordinary course of our business or otherwise. Such action could result in additional expenses which, if uninsured, could adversely impact our earnings and cash flows, thereby impacting our ability to service our debt and make quarterly distributions to our stockholders. There can be no assurance that our insurance policies will fully cover any payments or legal costs associated with any potential legal action. Further, the ultimate resolution of such action could impact the availability or cost of some of our insurance coverage, which could adversely impact our results of operations and cash flows, expose us to increased risks that would be uninsured, and/or adversely impact our ability to attract officers and directors.

If our disclosure controls or internal controls over financial reporting are not effective, investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information.

The design and effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures and our internal control over financial reporting may not prevent all errors, misstatements, or misrepresentations. Although management will continue to review the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures and our internal control over financial reporting, there can be no guarantee that these processes will be effective in accomplishing all control objectives all of the time. Deficiencies, including any material weakness, in our internal control over financial reporting which may occur in the future could result in misstatements of our results of operations, restatements of our financial statements, a decline in the trading price of our common stock, or otherwise materially adversely affect our business, reputation, results of operations, financial condition, or liquidity.

Compliance or failure to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act and other similar regulations could result in substantial costs.

Under the Americans with Disabilities Act, places of public accommodation must meet certain federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. Noncompliance could result in the imposition of fines by the federal government or the award of damages to private litigants. If we are required to make unanticipated expenditures to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act, including removing access barriers, then our cash flows and the amounts available for distributions to our stockholders may be adversely affected. Although we believe that our properties are currently in material compliance with these regulatory requirements, we have not conducted an audit or investigation of all of our properties to determine our compliance, and we cannot predict the ultimate cost of compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act or other legislation. If one or more of our properties is not in compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act or other legislation, then we would be required to incur additional costs to achieve compliance. If we incur substantial costs to comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act or other legislation, our financial condition, results of operations, the market price of our common stock, cash flows, and our ability to satisfy our debt obligations and to make distributions to our stockholders could be adversely affected.

Risks Related to Our Organization and Structure

Our organizational documents contain provisions that may have an anti-takeover effect, which may discourage third parties from conducting a tender offer or seeking other change of control transactions that could involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise benefit our stockholders.

Our charter and bylaws contain provisions that may have the effect of delaying, deferring, or preventing a change in control of our company (including an extraordinary transaction such as a merger, tender offer, or sale of all or substantially all of our assets) that might provide a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders. These provisions include, among other things, restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our stock, advance notice requirements for stockholder nominations for directors and other business proposals, and our board of directors’ power to classify or reclassify unissued shares of common or preferred stock and issue additional shares of common or preferred stock.


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In order to preserve our REIT status, our charter limits the number of shares a person may own, which may discourage a takeover that could result in a premium price for our common stock or otherwise benefit our stockholders.

Our charter, with certain exceptions, authorizes our directors to take such actions as are necessary and desirable to preserve our qualification as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. Unless exempted by our board of directors, no person may actually or constructively own more than 9.8% (by value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of the outstanding shares of our common stock or the outstanding shares of any class or series of our preferred stock, which may inhibit large investors from desiring to purchase our stock. This restriction may have the effect of delaying, deferring, or preventing a change in control, including an extraordinary transaction (such as a merger, tender offer, or sale of all or substantially all of our assets) that might provide a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.

Our board of directors can take many actions without stockholder approval.

Our board of directors has overall authority to oversee our operations and determine our major corporate policies. This authority includes significant flexibility. For example, our board of directors can do the following:

within the limits provided in our charter, prevent the ownership, transfer, and/or accumulation of stock in order to protect our status as a REIT or for any other reason deemed to be in our best interest and the interest of our stockholders;
issue additional shares of stock without obtaining stockholder approval, which could dilute the ownership of our then-current stockholders;
amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series that we have authority to issue, without obtaining stockholder approval;
classify or reclassify any unissued shares of our common or preferred stock and set the preferences, rights and other terms of such classified or reclassified shares, without obtaining stockholder approval;
employ and compensate affiliates;
direct our resources toward investments, which ultimately may not appreciate over time;
change creditworthiness standards with respect to our tenants;
change our investment or borrowing policies;
determine that it is no longer in our best interest to attempt to qualify, or to continue to qualify, as a REIT; and
suspend, modify or terminate the dividend reinvestment plan.

Any of these actions could increase our operating expenses, impact our ability to make distributions, or reduce the value of our assets without giving our stockholders the right to vote.

Our charter permits our board of directors to issue stock with terms that may subordinate the rights of our common stockholders, which may discourage a third party from acquiring us in a manner that could result in a premium price for our common stock or otherwise benefit our stockholders.

Our board of directors may, without stockholder approval, issue authorized but unissued shares of our common or preferred stock and amend our charter to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares of stock or the number of shares of stock of any class or series that we have authority to issue. In addition, our board of directors may, without stockholder approval, classify or reclassify any unissued shares of our common or preferred stock and set the preferences, rights and other terms of such classified or reclassified shares. Thus, our board of directors could authorize the issuance of preferred stock with terms and conditions that could have priority with respect to distributions and amounts payable upon liquidation over the rights of the holders of our common stock. Such preferred stock also could have the effect of delaying, deferring, or preventing a change in control, including an extraordinary transaction (such as a merger, tender offer, or sale of all or substantially all of our assets) that might provide a premium price for our common stock, or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.

Our board of directors could elect for us to be subject to certain Maryland law limitations on changes in control that could have the effect of preventing transactions in the best interest of our stockholders.

Certain provisions of Maryland law may have the effect of inhibiting a third party from making a proposal to acquire us or of impeding a change of control under certain circumstances that otherwise could provide the holders of shares of our common stock with the opportunity to realize a premium over the then-prevailing market price of such shares, including:

“business combination” provisions that, subject to limitations, prohibit certain business combinations between us and an “interested stockholder” (defined generally as any person who beneficially owns 10% or more of the voting power of our outstanding voting stock or any affiliate or associate of ours who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner of 10% or more of the voting power of our then outstanding stock) or an

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affiliate thereof for five years after the most recent date on which the stockholder becomes an interested stockholder and thereafter impose supermajority voting requirements on these combinations; and
“control share” provisions that provide that “control shares” of our company (defined as shares which, when aggregated with other shares controlled by the stockholder, except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy, entitle the stockholder to exercise one of three increasing ranges of voting power in electing directors) acquired in a “control share acquisition” (defined as the direct or indirect acquisition of ownership or control of “control shares”) have no voting rights except to the extent approved by our stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding all interested shares.

Our bylaws contain a provision exempting any acquisition by any person of shares of our stock from the control share acquisition statute, and our board of directors has adopted a resolution exempting any business combination with any person from the business combination statute. As a result, these provisions currently will not apply to a business combination or control share acquisition involving our company. However, our board of directors may opt into the business combination provisions and the control share provisions of Maryland law in the future.

Our charter, our bylaws, the limited partnership agreement of our operating partnership, and Maryland law also contain other provisions that may delay, defer, or prevent a transaction or a change of control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders. In addition, the employment agreements with certain of our executive officers contain, and grants under our incentive plan also may contain, change-in-control provisions that might similarly have an anti-takeover effect, inhibit a change of our management, or inhibit in certain circumstances tender offers for our common stock or proxy contests to change our board.

Our rights and the rights of our stockholders to recover claims against our directors and officers are limited, which could reduce our recovery and our stockholders’ recovery against them if they negligently cause us to incur losses.

Maryland law provides that a director or officer has no liability in that capacity if he or she performs his or her duties in good faith, in a manner he or she reasonably believes to be in our best interest and with the care that an ordinarily prudent person in a like position would use under similar circumstances. Our charter eliminates our directors’ and officers’ liability to us and our stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property, or services or active and deliberate dishonesty established by a final judgment and which is material to the cause of action. Our charter and bylaws require us to indemnify our directors and officers to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law for any claim or liability to which they may become subject or which they may incur by reason of their service as directors or officers, except to the extent that the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and was committed in bad faith or was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty, the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property, or services, or, in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful. As a result, we and our stockholders may have more limited rights against our directors and officers than might otherwise exist under common law, which could reduce our and our stockholders’ recovery from these persons if they act in a negligent manner. In addition, we may be obligated to fund the defense costs incurred by our directors and officers (as well as by our employees and agents) in some cases.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

Any change in our dividend policy could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.

Distributions are authorized and determined by our board of directors in its sole discretion and depend upon a number of factors, including:

cash available for distribution;
our results of operations and anticipated future results of operations;
our financial condition, especially in relation to our anticipated future capital needs of our properties;
the level of reserves we establish for future capital expenditures;
the distribution requirements for REITs under the Code;
the level of distributions paid by comparable listed REITs;
our operating expenses; and
other factors our board of directors deems relevant.

We expect to continue to pay quarterly distributions to our stockholders; however, we bear all expenses incurred by our operations, and our funds generated by operations, after deducting these expenses, may not be sufficient to cover desired levels of distributions to our stockholders. Any change in our distribution policy could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.

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There are significant price and volume fluctuations in the public markets, including on the exchange which we listed our common stock.

The U.S. stock markets, including the NYSE on which our common stock is listed, have historically experienced significant price and volume fluctuations. The market price of our common stock may be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations and investors in our common stock may experience a decrease in the value of their shares, including decreases unrelated to our operating performance or prospects. If the market price of our common stock declines significantly, stockholders may be unable to resell their shares at or above their purchase price. We cannot assure stockholders that the market price of our common stock will not fluctuate or decline significantly in the future. Some of the factors that could negatively affect our stock price or result in fluctuations in the price or trading volume of our common stock include, but are not limited to, the following:

actual or anticipated variations in our quarterly operating results;
changes in our earnings estimates or publication of research reports about us or the real estate industry, although no assurance can be given that any research reports about us will be published or the accuracy of such reports;
changes in our dividend policy;
future sales of substantial amounts of our common stock by our existing or future stockholders;
increases in market interest rates, which may lead purchasers of our stock to demand a higher yield;
changes in market valuations of similar companies;
adverse market reaction to any increased indebtedness we incur in the future;
additions or departures of key personnel;
actions by institutional stockholders;
material, adverse litigation judgments;
speculation in the press or investment community; and
general market and economic conditions.

Future offerings of debt securities, which would be senior to our common stock upon liquidation, or equity securities, which would dilute our existing stockholders and may be senior to our common stock for the purposes of distributions, may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

We may attempt to increase our capital resources by making additional offerings of debt or equity securities, including medium term notes, senior or subordinated notes and classes of preferred or common stock. Upon liquidation, holders of our debt securities and shares of preferred stock and lenders with respect to other borrowings will receive a distribution of our available assets prior to the holders of our common stock. Additional equity offerings may dilute the holdings of our existing stockholders or reduce the market price of our common stock or both. Because our decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. Thus, our stockholders bear the risk of our future offerings reducing the market price of our common stock and diluting their proportionate ownership.

Market interest rates may have an effect on the value of our common stock.

One of the factors that investors may consider in deciding whether to buy or sell our common stock is our distribution rate as a percentage of our share price, relative to market interest rates. If market interest rates increase, prospective investors may desire a higher yield on our common stock or seek securities paying higher dividends or yields. It is likely that the public valuation of our common stock will be based primarily on our earnings and cash flows and not from the underlying appraised value of the properties themselves. As a result, interest rate fluctuations and capital market conditions can affect the market value of our common stock. For instance, if interest rates rise, it is possible that the market price of our common stock will decrease, because potential investors may require a higher dividend yield on our common stock as market rates on interest-bearing securities, such as bonds, rise.

If securities analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or if they downgrade our common stock or our sector, the price of our common stock could decline.

The trading market for our common stock relies in part on the research and reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us or our business. We do not control these analysts. Furthermore, if one or more of the analysts who do cover us downgrades our shares or our industry, or the stock of any of our competitors, the price of our shares could decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of our company, we could lose attention in the market, which in turn could cause the price of our common stock to decline.


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Federal Income Tax Risks

Our failure to qualify as a REIT could adversely affect our operations and our ability to make distributions.

We are owned and operated in a manner intended to qualify us as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes; however, we do not have a ruling from the IRS as to our REIT status. In addition, we own all of the common stock of a subsidiary that has elected to be treated as a REIT, and if our subsidiary REIT were to fail to qualify as a REIT, it is possible that we also would fail to qualify as a REIT unless we (or the subsidiary REIT) could qualify for certain relief provisions. Our qualification and the qualification of our subsidiary REIT as a REIT will depend on satisfaction, on an annual or quarterly basis, of numerous requirements set forth in highly technical and complex provisions of the Code for which there are only limited judicial or administrative interpretations. A determination as to whether such requirements are satisfied involves various factual matters and circumstances not entirely within our control. The fact that we hold substantially all of our assets through our operating partnership and its subsidiaries further complicates the application of the REIT requirements for us. No assurance can be given that we, or our subsidiary REIT, will qualify as a REIT for any particular year.

If we, or our subsidiary REIT, were to fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year for which a REIT election has been made, the non-qualifying REIT would not be allowed a deduction for dividends paid to its stockholders in computing our taxable income and would be subject to U.S. federal income tax on its taxable income at corporate rates. Moreover, unless the non-qualifying REIT were to obtain relief under certain statutory provisions, the non-qualifying REIT also would be disqualified from treatment as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which qualification is lost. This treatment would reduce our net earnings available for investment or distribution to our stockholders because of the additional tax liability to us for the years involved. As a result of such additional tax liability, we might need to borrow funds or liquidate certain investments on terms that may be disadvantageous to us in order to pay the applicable tax.

Changes in tax laws may eliminate the benefits of REIT status, prevent us from maintaining our qualification as a REIT, or otherwise adversely affect our stockholders.

New legislation, regulations, administrative interpretations or court decisions could change the tax laws or interpretations of the tax laws regarding qualification as a REIT, or the federal income tax consequences of that qualification, in a manner that is materially adverse to our stockholders. In particular, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("H.R. 1"), which was effective for us for tax year 2018, made many significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax laws. A number of the changes that affected noncorporate taxpayers will expire at the end of 2025 unless Congress acts to extend them. These changes impacted us, our stockholders, and our tenants in various ways and the IRS continues to issue clarifying guidance with respect to certain of the provisions of H.R. 1, any of which may be adverse or potentially adverse compared to prior law. Additional changes to tax laws are likely to continue to occur in the future. Accordingly, there is no assurance that we can continue to operate with the current benefits of our REIT status or that a change to the tax laws will not adversely affect the taxation of our stockholders. If there is a change in the tax laws that prevents us from qualifying as a REIT, that eliminates REIT status generally, or that requires REITs generally to pay corporate level income taxes, our results of operations may be adversely affected and we may not be able to make the same level of distributions to our stockholders, and changes to the taxation of our stockholders could have an adverse effect on an investment in our common stock.

Even if we qualify as a REIT, we may incur certain tax liabilities that would reduce our cash flow and impair our ability to make distributions.

Even if we maintain our status as a REIT, we may be subject to U.S. federal income taxes or state taxes, which would reduce our cash available for distribution to our stockholders. For example, we will be subject to federal income tax on any undistributed taxable income. Further, if we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (a) 85% of our ordinary income for such year, (b) 95% of our net capital gain income for such year, and (c) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods, we will be subject to a 4% excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the sum of (i) the amounts actually distributed by us, plus (ii) retained amounts on which we pay income tax at the corporate level. If we realize net income from foreclosure properties that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, we must pay tax thereon at the highest corporate income tax rate, and if we sell a property, other than foreclosure property, that we are determined to have held for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, any gain realized would be subject to a 100% “prohibited transaction” tax. The determination as to whether or not a particular sale is a prohibited transaction depends on the facts and circumstances related to that sale. We cannot guarantee that sales of our properties would not be prohibited transactions unless we comply with certain safe-harbor provisions. The need to avoid prohibited transactions could cause us to forgo or defer sales of properties that might otherwise be in our best interest to sell. In addition, we own interests in certain taxable REIT subsidiaries that are subject to federal income taxation and we and our subsidiaries may be subject to state and local taxes on our income or property.


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Differences between the recognition of taxable income and the actual receipt of cash could require us to sell assets or borrow funds on a short-term or long-term basis to meet the distribution requirements of the Code.

We intend to make distributions to our stockholders to comply with the requirements of the Code for REITs and to minimize or eliminate our corporate tax obligations; however, differences between the recognition of taxable income and the actual receipt of cash could require us to sell assets or borrow funds on a short-term or long-term basis to meet the distribution requirements of the Code. Certain types of assets generate substantial disparity between taxable income and available cash, such as real estate that has been financed through financing structures which require some or all of available cash flows to be used to service borrowings. As a result, the requirement to distribute a substantial portion of our taxable income could cause us to: (1) sell assets in adverse market conditions, (2) borrow on unfavorable terms, or (3) distribute amounts that would otherwise be invested in future acquisitions, capital expenditures, or repayment of debt, in order to comply with REIT requirements. Any such actions could increase our costs and reduce the value of our common stock. Further, we may be required to make distributions to our stockholders when it would be more advantageous to reinvest cash in our business or when we do not have funds readily available for distribution. Compliance with REIT qualification requirements may, therefore, hinder our ability to operate solely on the basis of maximizing profits.

Distributions made by REITs do not qualify for the reduced tax rates that apply to certain other corporate distributions.

The maximum income tax rate for dividends paid by corporations to individuals, trusts and estates is generally 20%. Dividends paid by REITs, however, (other than distributions we properly designate as capital gain dividends or as qualified dividend income) are taxed at the normal income tax rate applicable to the individual recipient (currently a maximum rate of 37%) rather than the 20% preferential rate, subject to a deduction equal to 20% of the amount of certain “qualified REIT dividends” that is available to noncorporate taxpayers through 2025, which has the effect of reducing the maximum effective income tax rate on qualified REIT dividends to 29.6%. The more favorable rates applicable to regular corporate dividends could cause investors who are individuals to perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in non-REIT corporations that make distributions, particularly after the scheduled expiration of the 20% deduction applicable to qualified REIT dividends on December 31, 2025.

A recharacterization of transactions undertaken by our operating partnership may result in lost tax benefits or prohibited transactions, which would diminish cash distributions to our stockholders, or even cause us to lose REIT status.

The IRS could recharacterize transactions consummated by our operating partnership, which could result in the income realized on certain transactions being treated as gain realized from the sale of property that is held as inventory or otherwise held primarily for the sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. In such event, the gain would constitute income from a prohibited transaction and would be subject to a 100% tax. If this were to occur, our ability to make cash distributions to our stockholders would be adversely affected. Moreover, our operating partnership may purchase properties and lease them back to the sellers of such properties. While we will use our best efforts to structure any such sale-leaseback transaction such that the lease will be characterized as a “true lease,” thereby allowing us to be treated as the owner of the property for federal income tax purposes, we can give stockholders no assurance that the IRS will not attempt to challenge such characterization. In the event that any such sale-leaseback transaction is challenged and recharacterized as a financing transaction or loan for U.S. federal income tax purposes, deductions for depreciation and cost recovery relating to such property would be disallowed. If a sale-leaseback transaction were so recharacterized, the amount of our adjusted REIT taxable income could be recalculated, which might cause us to fail to meet the distribution requirement for a taxable year. We also might fail to satisfy the REIT qualification asset tests or income tests and, consequently, lose our REIT status. Even if we maintain our status as a REIT, an increase in our adjusted REIT taxable income could cause us to be subject to additional federal and state income and excise taxes. Any federal or state taxes we pay will reduce our cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

We face possible adverse changes in state and local tax laws regarding the treatment of REITs and their stockholders, which may result in an increase in our tax liability.

From time to time, changes in state and local tax laws or regulations are enacted, including changes to a state’s treatment of REITs and their stockholders, which may result in an increase in our tax liability. Any shortfall in tax revenues for states and municipalities may lead to an increase in the frequency and size of such changes. If such changes occur, we may be required to pay additional taxes on our assets or income. These increased tax costs could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations and the amount of cash available for payment of dividends.


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Risks Associated with Debt Financing

We have incurred and are likely to continue to incur mortgage and other indebtedness, which may increase our business risks.

As of December 31, 2018, we had total outstanding indebtedness of approximately $1.7 billion and a total debt to gross assets ratio of 36.2%. Although the instruments governing our unsecured and secured indebtedness limit our ability to incur additional indebtedness, these restrictions are subject to a number of qualifications and exceptions and, under certain circumstances, debt incurred in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial. We may incur additional indebtedness to acquire properties or other real estate-related investments, to fund property improvements, and other capital expenditures or for other corporate purposes, such as to repurchase shares of our common stock through repurchase programs that our board of directors have authorized or to fund future distributions to our stockholders.

Significant borrowings by us increase the risks of an investment in us. Our ability to make payments on and to refinance our indebtedness and to fund our operations, working capital and capital expenditures, depends on our ability to generate cash in the future. Our cash flow is subject to general economic, industry, financial, competitive, operating, legislative, regulatory and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. If there is a shortfall between the cash flow from properties and the cash flow needed to service our indebtedness, then the amount available for distributions to stockholders may be reduced.

Our failure to pay amounts due with respect to any of our indebtedness may constitute an event of default under the instrument governing that indebtedness, which could permit the holders of that indebtedness to require the immediate repayment of that indebtedness in full and, in the case of secured indebtedness, could allow them to sell the collateral securing that indebtedness and use the proceeds to repay that indebtedness. For example, defaults on indebtedness secured by a property may result in lenders initiating foreclosure actions. Although we believe no such instances exist as of December 31, 2018, in those cases, we could lose the property securing the loan that is in default. For tax purposes, a foreclosure of any of our properties would be treated as a sale of the property for a purchase price equal to the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage. If the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage exceeds our tax basis in the property, we would recognize taxable income on foreclosure, but we would not receive any cash proceeds.

Moreover, any acceleration of, or default, with respect to any of our indebtedness could, in turn, constitute an event of default under other debt instruments or agreements, thereby resulting in the acceleration and required repayment of that other indebtedness. In addition, while we do not currently anticipate doing so, we may give full or partial guarantees to lenders of mortgage debt on behalf of the entities that own our properties if circumstances warrant that action. If we were to give a guaranty on behalf of an entity that owns one of our properties, we would be responsible to the lender for satisfaction of the debt if it were not paid by such entity. If any mortgages or other indebtedness contain cross-collateralization or cross-default provisions, a default on a single loan could affect multiple properties. If any of our properties are foreclosed on due to a default, our ability to pay cash distributions to our stockholders will be limited.

We cannot give any assurance that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future sources of cash will be available to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to pay amounts due on our indebtedness or to fund our other liquidity needs.

We may need to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness on or before maturity. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness or obtain additional financing will depend on, among other things our financial condition, results of operations and market conditions at the time; and restrictions in the agreements governing our indebtedness.

As a result, we may not be able to refinance our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. If we do not generate sufficient cash flow from operations, and additional borrowings or refinancings or proceeds of assets sales or other sources of cash are not available to us, we may not have sufficient cash to enable us to meet all of our obligations. Accordingly, if we cannot service our indebtedness, we may have to take actions such as seeking additional equity financing, delaying capital expenditures or strategic acquisitions and alliances. Any of these events or circumstances could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, the trading price of our securities and our ability to satisfy our debt service obligations.

High mortgage rates may make it difficult for us to finance or refinance properties, which could reduce the number of properties we can acquire, our net income, and the amount of cash distributions we can make.

If mortgage debt is unavailable at reasonable rates, we may not be able to finance the purchase of properties. If we place mortgage debt on properties, we run the risk of being unable to refinance the properties when the loans become due, or of being unable to refinance on favorable terms. If interest rates are higher when we refinance our properties, our income could be reduced. We may be unable to refinance properties. If any of these events occur, our cash flow could be reduced. This, in turn, could reduce cash

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available for distribution to our stockholders and may hinder our ability to raise more capital by issuing more stock or by borrowing more money.

Agreements governing our existing indebtedness contain, and future financing arrangements will likely contain, restrictive covenants relating to our operations, which could limit our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

We are subject to certain restrictions pursuant to the restrictive covenants of our outstanding indebtedness, which may affect our distribution and operating policies and our ability to incur additional debt. Loan documents evidencing our existing indebtedness contain, and loan documents entered into in the future will likely contain, certain operating covenants that limit our ability to further mortgage the property or discontinue insurance coverage. In addition, the agreements governing our existing indebtedness contain financial covenants, including certain coverage ratios and limitations on our ability to incur secured and unsecured debt, make dividend payments, sell all or substantially all of our assets, and engage in mergers and consolidations and certain acquisitions. Covenants under our existing indebtedness do, and under any future indebtedness likely will, restrict our ability to pursue certain business initiatives or certain acquisition transactions. In addition, failure to meet any of these covenants, including the financial coverage ratios, could cause an event of default under and/or accelerate some or all of our indebtedness, which would have a material adverse effect on us.

Increases in interest rates would increase the amount of our variable-rate debt payments and could limit our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders.

Currently, the outstanding draws on our $500 Million Unsecured 2018 Line of Credit and $100 million of our $250 Million Unsecured 2018 Term Loan are our only debt instruments that bear interest at a floating rate. All of our other debt is either fixed rate or has been effectively fixed through interest rate swap agreements. In addition, the outstanding draws under the $500 Million Unsecured 2018 Line of Credit, are subject to various length LIBOR locks; however, increases in interest rates could increase our interest costs associated with this variable rate debt to the extent our current locks expire and new balances are drawn under the facility. Such increases would reduce our cash flows and could impact our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders. In addition, if we are required to repay existing debt during periods of higher interest rates, we may need to sell one or more of our investments in order to repay the debt, which might not permit realization of the maximum return on such investments.

Changes in interest rates could have adverse effects on our cash flows as a result of our interest rate derivative contracts.

We have entered into various interest rate derivative agreements to effectively fix our exposure to interest rates under certain of our existing debt facilities. To the extent interest rates are higher than the fixed rate in the respective contract, we would realize cash savings as compared to other market participants. However, to the extent interest rates are below the fixed rate in the respective contract, we would make higher cash payments than other similar market participants, which would have an adverse effect on our cash flows as compared to other market participants.

Additionally, there is counterparty risk associated with entering into interest rate derivative contracts. Should market conditions lead to insolvency or make a merger necessary for one or more of our counterparties, or potential future counterparties, it is possible that the terms of our interest rate derivative contracts will not be honored in their current form with a replacement counterparty. The potential termination or renegotiation of the terms of the interest rate derivative contracts as a result of changing counterparties through insolvency or merger could result in an adverse impact on our results of operations and cash flows.

Changes in the method pursuant to which the LIBOR rates are determined and potential phasing out of LIBOR after 2021 may adversely affect our results of operations.

LIBOR and certain other “benchmarks” are the subject of recent national, international and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. These reforms may cause such benchmarks to perform differently than in the past or have other consequences which cannot be predicted. In particular, on July 27, 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, publicly announced that it intends to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit LIBOR rates after 2021. It is unclear whether, at that time, LIBOR will cease to exist or if new methods of calculating LIBOR will be established.

As of December 31, 2018, approximately $755 million of our outstanding indebtedness had interest rate payments determined directly or indirectly based on LIBOR. As of December 31, 2018, we also had $450 million notional value of floating-to-fixed interest rate swaps that we use to hedge our interest rate exposure on most of this indebtedness. Any uncertainty regarding the continued use and reliability of LIBOR as a benchmark interest rate could adversely affect the performance of LIBOR relative to its historic values. If the methods of calculating LIBOR change from current methods for any reason, or if LIBOR ceases to perform as it has historically, our interest expense associated with the unhedged portion of our outstanding indebtedness or any future indebtedness we incur may increase. Further, if LIBOR ceases to exist, we may be forced to substitute an alternative reference rate, such as a different benchmark interest rate or base rate borrowings, in lieu of LIBOR under our current and future indebtedness

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and interest rate swaps. At this point, it is not clear what, if any, alternative reference rate may be adopted to replace LIBOR, however, any such alternative reference rate may be calculated differently than LIBOR and may increase the interest expense associated with our existing or future indebtedness.

Finally, the replacement or disappearance of LIBOR may adversely affect the value of and costs associated with our LIBOR-based obligations and the availability, pricing and terms of LIBOR-based interest rate swaps we use to hedge our interest rate risk. Alternative reference rates or modifications to LIBOR may not align for our assets, liabilities, and hedging instruments, which could reduce the effectiveness of certain of our interest rate hedges, and could cause increased volatility in our earnings. We may also incur expenses to amend and adjust our indebtedness and swaps to eliminate any differences between any alternative reference rates used by our interest rate hedges and our outstanding indebtedness.

Any of these occurrences could materially and adversely affect our borrowing costs, business and results of operations.

A downgrade in our credit rating could materially adversely affect our business and financial condition.

The credit ratings assigned to our debt securities could change based upon, among other things, our results of operations and financial condition. If any of the credit rating agencies that have rated our debt securities downgrades or lowers its credit rating, or if any credit rating agency indicates that it has placed any such rating on a so-called “watch list” for a possible downgrading or lowering or otherwise indicates that its outlook for that rating is negative, it could have a material adverse effect on our costs and availability of capital, which could in turn have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and our ability to satisfy our debt service obligations.


ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

There were no unresolved SEC staff comments as of December 31, 2018.

ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES

Overview

As of December 31, 2018, we owned interests in 54 in-service office properties, and 92% of our ALR was generated from select sub-markets located within eight major office markets located in the Eastern-half of the United States: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Minneapolis, New York, Orlando, and Washington, D.C. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, our in-service portfolio was 93.3% and 89.7% leased, respectively, with an average lease term remaining as of each period end of approximately seven years and an average lease size of approximately 19,000 square feet. No tenant accounts for more than 5.1% of our ALR, and our five largest tenants are State of New York, U.S. Bancorp, Independence Blue Cross, GE, and the United States Government.

ALR (see Item 1. Business - "Information Regarding Disclosures Presented" above) related to our in-service portfolio was $520.0 million, or $34.37 per leased square foot, as of December 31, 2018 as compared with $561.3 million, or $32.84 per leased square foot, as of December 31, 2017. These rental rates are presented before consideration of the fact that several of our largest tenants self-perform various aspects of their building management; therefore, we do not count those expenses in our gross rent calculations. If the costs of these functions are added to these leases, our average gross rent for our in-service portfolio as of December 31, 2018, increases to $35.83 per leased square foot.


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Property Statistics

The following table shows the geographic diversification of our in-service portfolio as of December 31, 2018:

Location
 
Annualized
Lease Revenue
(in thousands)
 
Rentable Square
Feet
(in thousands)
 
Percentage of
Annualized
Lease Revenue (%)
 
Percent Leased (%)
Washington, D.C.
 
$
75,939

 
1,950

 
14.6

 
77.6

New York
 
70,144

 
1,772

 
13.5

 
97.5

Minneapolis
 
63,620

 
2,104

 
12.2

 
95.5

Atlanta
 
61,673

 
2,249

 
11.9

 
95.6

Boston
 
58,083

 
1,882

 
11.2

 
96.7

Dallas
 
53,805

 
2,114

 
10.3

 
88.2

Orlando
 
53,128

 
1,755

 
10.2

 
95.6

Chicago
 
42,202

 
967

 
8.1

 
98.1

Other (1)
 
41,428

 
1,415

 
8.0

 
100

 
 
$
520,022

 
16,208

 
100.0

 
93.3


(1) 
Includes 1901 Market Street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; 1430 Enclave Parkway and Enclave Place in Houston, Texas.

The following table shows lease expirations of our in-service office portfolio as of December 31, 2018 during each of the next thirteen years and thereafter, assuming no exercise of renewal options or termination rights:
Year of Lease Expiration
 
Annualized
Lease Revenue
(in thousands)
 
Percentage of
Annualized
Lease Revenue (%)
Available space
 
$

 

2019
 
67,179

 
12.9

2020
 
40,555

 
7.8

2021
 
19,500

 
3.8

2022
 
39,133

 
7.5

2023
 
44,272

 
8.5

2024
 
62,568

 
12.0

2025
 
23,001

 
4.4

2026
 
28,506

 
5.5

2027
 
46,176

 
8.9

2028
 
47,119

 
9.1

2029
 
22,354

 
4.3

2030
 
14,653

 
2.8

2031
 
14,236

 
2.7

Thereafter
 
50,770

 
9.8

 
 
$
520,022

 
100.0


Certain Restrictions Related to our Properties

As of December 31, 2018, the 5 Wall Street building in Burlington, Massachusetts and the 1901 Market Street building in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, were held as collateral for debt, and no properties were subject to ground leases. Refer to Schedule III listed in the index of Item 15(a) of this report, for further details regarding the two properties held as collateral for debt facilities as of December 31, 2018.


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ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Piedmont is not subject to any material pending legal proceedings. However, we are subject to routine litigation arising in the ordinary course of owning and operating real estate assets. Our management expects that these ordinary routine legal proceedings will be covered by insurance and does not expect these legal proceedings to have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity. Additionally, management is not aware of any legal proceedings contemplated by governmental authorities.


ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

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PART II


ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information and Holders

Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “PDM.” As of February 19, 2019, there were 9,877 common stockholders of record of our common stock.

Performance Graph

The following graph compares the cumulative total return of Piedmont’s common stock with the FTSE NAREIT Equity Office Index, the FTSE NAREIT Equity REITs Index, and the S&P 500 Index for the period beginning on December 31, 2013 through December 31, 2018. The graph assumes a $100 investment in each of Piedmont and the three indices, and the reinvestment of any dividends.

http://api.tenkwizard.com/cgi/image?quest=1&rid=23&ipage=12723374&doc=15
Comparison of Cumulative Total Return of One or More Companies, Peer Groups, Industry Indices, and/or Broad Markets

 
As of the year ended December 31,
 
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
Piedmont Office Realty Trust, Inc.
$
100.00

$
119.14

$
125.07

$
144.60

$
144.74

$
131.57

FTSE NAREIT Equity Office
$
100.00

$
125.86

$
126.22

$
142.84

$
150.33

$
128.54

FTSE NAREIT Equity REITs
$
100.00

$
130.14

$
134.30

$
145.74

$
153.36

$
146.27

S&P 500
$
100.00

$
113.69

$
115.26

$
129.05

$
157.22

$
150.33



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The performance graph above is being furnished as part of this Annual Report solely in accordance with the requirement under Rule 14a-3(b)(9) to furnish Piedmont’s stockholders with such information and, therefore, is not deemed to be filed, or incorporated by reference in any filing, by Piedmont under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Purchases of Equity Securities By the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

During the quarter ended December 31, 2018, we repurchased and retired shares of our common stock as part of our stock repurchase plan as follows:
Period
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
(in 000’s)
 
Average Price Paid
per Share
 
Total Number of
Shares  Purchased
as Part of
Publicly Announced
Program
(in 000’s) (1)
 
Maximum Approximate
Dollar Value of Shares
Available That May
Yet Be Purchased
Under the Program
(in 000’s)
 
October 1, 2018 to October 31, 2018

 
$

 

 
$
123,464

 
November 1, 2018 to November 30, 2018
56

 
$
17.86

 
56

 
$
122,461

  
December 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018
2,097

 
$
17.11

 
2,097

 
$
86,572

(1) 
Total
2,153

 
$
17.13

 
2,153

 


 

(1) 
Amounts available for purchase relate only to our Board-authorized stock repurchase plan under our current authorization to repurchase shares of our common stock through February 21, 2020.

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ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following sets forth a summary of our selected financial data as of and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, and 2014 (in thousands except for per-share data). Our selected financial data is prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), except as noted below.
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Statement of Income Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total revenues
$
525,967

 
$
574,173

 
$
555,715

 
$
584,769

 
$
566,252

Property operating costs
$
209,338

 
$
222,441

 
$
220,796

 
$
244,090

 
$
241,128

Depreciation and amortization
$
171,251


$
194,655


$
202,852


$
195,389


$
195,175

Impairment loss on real estate assets
$

 
$
46,461

 
$
33,901

 
$
43,301

 
$

General and administrative expenses
$
29,713

 
$
29,319

 
$
27,382

 
$
28,278

 
$
22,128

Interest and other expense
$
(61,065
)
 
$
(63,622
)
 
$
(64,477
)
 
$
(72,158
)
 
$
(67,742
)
Gain on sale of real estate assets not classified as discontinued operations
$
75,691

 
$
115,874

 
$
93,410

 
$
129,683

 
$
870

Income from continuing operations
$
130,291

 
$
133,549

 
$
99,717

 
$
131,236

 
$
40,949

Per-Share Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Per weighted-average common share data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Income from continuing operations per share—basic and diluted
$
1.00

 
$
0.92

 
$
0.69

 
$
0.87

 
$
0.26

Cash dividends declared per common share
$
0.84

 
$
1.34

 
$
0.84

 
$
0.84

 
$
0.81

Weighted-average shares outstanding—basic (in thousands)
130,161

 
145,044

 
145,230

 
150,538

 
154,452

Weighted-average shares outstanding—diluted (in thousands)
130,636

 
145,380

 
145,635

 
150,880

 
154,585

Balance Sheet Data (at period end):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
$
3,592,429

 
$
3,999,967

 
$
4,368,168

 
$
4,361,511

 
$
4,756,496

Total stockholders’ equity
$
1,712,140

 
$
1,986,489

 
$
2,097,703

 
$
2,123,420

 
$
2,280,677

Outstanding debt
$
1,685,472

 
$
1,726,927

 
$
2,020,475

 
$
2,029,510

 
$
2,269,922

NAREIT Funds from Operations Data (1):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GAAP net income applicable to common stock
$
130,296

 
$
133,564

 
$
99,732

 
$
131,304

 
$
42,150

Depreciation and amortization
170,348

 
193,904

 
202,268

 
194,943

 
195,345

Impairment loss

 
46,461

 
33,901

 
43,301

 

Gain on sale- wholly-owned properties and unconsolidated partnerships
(75,691
)
 
(119,557
)
 
(93,410
)
 
(129,682
)
 
(963
)
NAREIT Funds From Operations applicable to common stock (1)
$
224,953

 
$
254,372

 
$
242,491

 
$
239,866

 
$
236,532

Acquisition costs

 
6

 
976

 
919

 
560

Loss on extinguishment of debt
1,680

 

 

 
38

 

Net loss/(recoveries) of casualty loss and litigation settlements

 

 
(34
)
 
278

 
(6,992
)
Core Funds From Operations applicable to common stock (1)
$
226,633

 
$
254,378

 
$
243,433

 
$
241,101

 
$
230,100

Amortization of debt issuance costs, fair market adjustments on notes payable, and discount on Senior Notes
2,083

 
2,496

 
2,610

 
2,547

 
2,632

Depreciation of non real estate assets
813

 
809

 
841

 
755

 
508

Straight-line effects of lease revenue and net effect of amortization of below-market in-place lease intangibles
(21,595
)

(28,067
)

(26,609
)

(20,305
)
 
(33,848
)
Stock-based and other non-cash compensation
7,528

 
6,139

 
5,620

 
7,090

 
3,975

Acquisition costs

 
(6
)
 
(976
)
 
(919
)
 
(560
)
Non-incremental capital expenditures
(44,004
)
 
(35,437
)
 
(35,568
)
 
(44,136
)
 
(84,630
)
Adjusted Funds From Operations applicable to common stock (1)
$
171,458

 
$
200,312

 
$
189,351

 
$
186,133

 
$
118,177


(1) 
Net income calculated in accordance with GAAP is the starting point for calculating Funds from Operations, Core Funds From Operations, and Adjusted Funds From Operations. See "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations Funds from Operations, Core Funds from Operations, and Adjusted Funds From Operations" below for a description and reconciliation of the calculations as presented.


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ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with Item 6, Selected Financial Data, above and our audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. See also “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” preceding Part I of this report and “Risk Factors” set forth in Item 1A. of this report.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Over the last several years, we have actively managed the composition of our portfolio to further concentrate our holdings in selected sub-markets within our eight core markets. During 2018, we substantively completed this strategy by disposing of 15 properties, 14 in a portfolio sale in January and one in November. We used the net sales proceeds from these dispositions to repay debt, to repurchase shares of our common stock pursuant to our stock repurchase plan, and to selectively acquire three assets in our core markets.

We intend to use cash flows generated from the operation of our properties, proceeds from additional selective property dispositions, and proceeds from our $500 Million Unsecured 2018 Line of Credit as our primary sources of immediate liquidity. As of the filing date, we have $258.0 million of unused capacity under our line of credit. When necessary, we may seek secured or unsecured borrowings from third party lenders or issue securities as additional sources of capital. The availability and attractiveness of terms for these additional sources of capital will be highly dependent on market conditions at the time.

Our most consistent use of capital has historically been, and we believe will continue to be, to fund capital expenditures for our existing portfolio of properties. During the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, we incurred the following types of capital expenditures (in thousands):
 
December 31, 2018

 
December 31, 2017

Capital expenditures for new development
$
78

 
$
6,490

Capital expenditures for redevelopment/ renovations
9,892

 
2,113

Capital expenditures previously credited as part of property acquisition

 
10,340

Other capital expenditures, including building and tenant improvements
62,135

 
60,888

Total capital expenditures (1)
$
72,105

 
$
79,831

(1) 
Of the total amounts paid, approximately $2.0 million and $0.3 million related to soft costs such as capitalized interest, payroll, and other general and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
"Capital expenditures for new development" relate to new office development projects. During the two years ended December 31, 2018, such expenditures primarily related to the construction of 500 TownPark, our now complete, approximately 134,000 square foot, 100% leased, four-story office building located adjacent to our existing 400 TownPark building in Lake Mary, Florida.

"Capital expenditures for redevelopment/renovations" during the year ended December 31, 2018 primarily related to a redevelopment project to upgrade common areas, as well as amenities and parking, at our Two Pierce Place building in Itasca, Illinois. Expenditures during the year ended December 31, 2017 related to a now-complete redevelopment project that converted our 3100 Clarendon Boulevard building in Arlington, Virginia from governmental use into Class A private sector office space, as well as work begun on the Two Pierce Place project mentioned previously.

"Other capital expenditures" include all other capital expenditures during the period and are typically comprised of tenant and building improvements necessary to lease, maintain, or provide enhancements to our existing portfolio of office properties.

We classify our tenant and building improvements into two categories: (i) improvements which maintain the building's existing asset value and its revenue generating capacity (“non-incremental capital expenditures”) and (ii) improvements which incrementally enhance the building's asset value by expanding its revenue generating capacity (“incremental capital expenditures”). As of December 31, 2018, commitments for funding non-incremental capital expenditures for tenant improvements over the next five years related to our existing lease portfolio totaled approximately $45.6 million. The timing of the funding of these commitments is largely dependent upon tenant requests for reimbursement; however, we anticipate that a significant portion of these improvement allowances may be requested over the next three years based on when the underlying leases commence. In some instances, these obligations may expire with the respective lease, without further recourse to us. Commitments for incremental capital expenditures for tenant improvements associated with executed leases totaled approximately $32.6 million as of December 31, 2018.

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Given that our operating model frequently results in leases for large blocks of space to credit-worthy tenants, our leasing success can result in significant capital outlays. For example, for leases executed during the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, we committed to spend approximately $5.64 and $4.65 per square foot per year of lease term, respectively, for tenant improvement allowances and lease commissions (net of expiring lease commitments). The increase is primarily due to two significant leases signed during 2018 in our Houston and Washington, D.C. portfolios. In addition to the amounts that we have already committed to as a part of executed leases, we also anticipate continuing to incur similar market-based tenant improvement allowances and leasing commissions in conjunction with procuring future leases for our existing portfolio of properties. Both the timing and magnitude of expenditures related to future leasing activity are highly dependent on the competitive market conditions at the time of lease negotiations of the particular office market within which a given lease is signed. In particular, we are currently in the advanced stages of negotiating the renewal of the lease of our largest tenant, New York State, which expires during 2019 and anticipate expending significant capital for market-based tenant improvement allowances and leasing commissions over the next 3-4 years associated with the renewal.

There are other uses of capital that may arise as part of our typical operations. Subject to the identification and availability of attractive investment opportunities and our ability to consummate such acquisitions on satisfactory terms, acquiring new assets compatible with our investment strategy could also be a significant use of capital. Further, we may continue to use capital resources to repurchase additional shares of our common stock under our stock repurchase program. As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately $86.6 million of board-authorized capacity remaining for future stock repurchases. Finally, although we currently have no scheduled debt maturities until the third quarter of 2021, on a longer term basis we expect to use capital to repay debt obligations when they become due.

The amount and form of payment (cash or stock issuance) of future dividends to be paid to our stockholders will continue to be largely dependent upon (i) the amount of cash generated from our operating activities; (ii) our expectations of future cash flows; (iii) our determination of near-term cash needs for debt repayments, development projects, and selective acquisitions of new properties; (iv) the timing of significant expenditures for tenant improvements, building redevelopment projects, and general property capital improvements; (v) long-term dividend payout ratios for comparable companies; (vi) our ability to continue to access additional sources of capital, including potential sales of our properties; and (vii) the amount required to be distributed to maintain our status as a REIT. With the fluctuating nature of cash flows and expenditures, we may periodically borrow funds on a short-term basis to cover timing differences in cash receipts and cash disbursements.



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Results of Operations (2018 vs. 2017)

Overview

Net income per diluted share applicable to common stockholders increased from $0.92 for the year ended December 31, 2017 to $1.00 for the year ended December 31, 2018. The year ended December 31, 2018 included approximately $0.58 per diluted share, of gains on sales, whereas the prior year included approximately $0.48 per diluted share, of gains on sales net of an impairment loss. The current year results also reflect the positive impact of higher overall occupancy in the portfolio throughout the year ended December 31, 2018 as compared with the previous year as well as a 14.7 million share decrease in our weighted average shares outstanding as a result of stock repurchases made pursuant to our stock repurchase program during the twelve months ended December 31, 2018.

Comparison of the accompanying consolidated statements of income for the year ended December 31, 2018 vs. the year ended December 31, 2017

The following table sets forth selected data from our consolidated statements of income for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, as well as each balance as a percentage of total revenues for the years presented (dollars in millions):

 
December 31, 2018
 
% of Revenues
 
December 31, 2017
 
% of Revenues
 
Variance
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rental income
$
411.7

 
 
 
$
455.1

 
 
 
$
(43.4
)
Tenant reimbursements
92.7

 
 
 
98.2

 
 
 
(5.5
)
Property management fee revenue
1.5

 
 
 
1.7

 
 
 
(0.2
)
Other property related income
20.1

 
 
 
19.2

 
 
 
0.9

Total revenues
526.0

 
100
%
 
574.2

 
100
%
 
(48.2
)
Expense:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Property operating costs
209.3

 
40
%
 
222.4

 
39
%
 
(13.1
)
Depreciation
108.0

 
20
%
 
119.3

 
21
%
 
(11.3
)
Amortization
63.3

 
12
%
 
75.4

 
13
%
 
(12.1
)
Impairment losses on real estate assets

 
%
 
46.5

 
8
%
 
(46.5
)
General and administrative
29.7

 
6
%
 
29.3

 
5
%
 
0.4

 
115.7

 
22
%
 
81.3

 
14
%
 
34.4

Other income (expense):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest expense
(61.0
)
 
12
%
 
(68.1
)
 
12
%
 
7.1

Other income
1.6

 
%
 
0.6

 
%
 
1.0

Equity in income of unconsolidated joint ventures

 
%
 
3.8

 
1
%
 
(3.8
)
Loss on extinguishment of debt
(1.7
)
 
%
 

 
%
 
(1.7
)
Gain on sale of real estate assets
75.7

 
15
%
 
115.9

 
20
%
 
(40.2
)
Net income
$
130.3

 
25
%
 
$
133.5

 
23
%
 
$
(3.2
)

Revenue

Rental income decreased approximately $43.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 as compared to the same period in the prior year. Substantially all of the decrease is attributable to net property disposition activity subsequent to January 1, 2017. In addition, rental income includes the amortization of approximately $3.0 million and $3.4 million of termination income for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.

Tenant reimbursements decreased approximately $5.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 as compared to the same period in the prior year. Net disposition activity subsequent to January 1, 2017 contributed approximately $10.2 million to the decrease; however, this variance was partially offset due to the expiration of abatements and an increase in recoverable operating expenses at certain of our existing properties due to an increase in overall occupancy.


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